EIA procedures in the eight Arctic countries
Detailed description of the EIA procedures in
different arctic coutries can be found from the tables.
Note that this information has been collected
during 1998 and has not been updated since!
Some legislation for EIA is found in all Arctic
countries but the legislative connection varies. In Sweden the EIA-requirements
are divided under several acts when again in Norway they are connected to the
Planning Act and in the USA to the Environmental Policy Act. The remaining
Arctic nations have specific EIA-Acts. In the State of Alaska and in the Yukon
Territory of Canada no EIA-legislation is found. However, large areas of land is
owned by the federal government and thus the federal legislation prevails. In
Russia several EIA-acts and regulations are found.
In Fennoscandia and Canada a strong connection to
public participation and planning can be seen, in Sweden and Russia the
connection is towards society´s security and in the USA for studies of
alternatives. The environment-concept varies for its width from country to
country and even from province and territory to another. The narrowest concept
is restricted to biological aspects while on its widest it includes also
physical, chemical, cultural and sociological aspects.
There is some variability among the appearance of
different phases of EIA. For example scoping is an obligatory part of the
EIA-process in all nations but Sweden and Russia. Monitoring is usually not
specified as a requirement except in Finland, Norway and Canada. The number of
EIA-processes vary from one country to another. In Finland and Norway together
there are no more than 50 cases per year while the other nations may deal with
hundreds - thousands of cases per year. In all the countries both
governmental ministeries as well as municipalities are involved as authorities.