General Procedure

Procedure & Legislation



EIA procedures in the eight Arctic countries

Detailed description of the EIA procedures in different arctic coutries can be found from the tables.

Note that this information has been collected during 1998 and has not been updated since!

Legal backgrounds for EIA in the Arctic countries
The aim of EIA-system in  Arctic countries

Environment- concept in the EIA-legislation of Arctic countries
The sharing of responsibility in EIA-process
Authorities with interest on EIA-quality in Arctic countries
Phases in EIA-processes of Arctic countries
Contents of Environmental Statement
Illustrations of the Nordic EIA -Procedures (offered by Nordregio)

Some legislation for EIA is found in all Arctic countries but the legislative connection varies. In Sweden the EIA-requirements are divided under several acts when again in Norway they are connected to the Planning Act and in the USA to the Environmental Policy Act. The remaining Arctic nations have specific EIA-Acts. In the State of Alaska and in the Yukon Territory of Canada no EIA-legislation is found. However, large areas of land is owned by the federal government and thus the federal legislation prevails. In Russia several EIA-acts and regulations are found.

In Fennoscandia and Canada a strong connection to public participation and planning can be seen, in Sweden and Russia the connection is towards society´s security and in the USA for studies of alternatives. The environment-concept varies for its width from country to country and even from province and territory to another. The narrowest concept is restricted to biological aspects while on its widest it includes also physical, chemical, cultural and sociological aspects.

There is some variability among the appearance of different phases of EIA. For example scoping is an obligatory part of the EIA-process in all nations but Sweden and Russia. Monitoring is usually not specified as a requirement except in Finland, Norway and Canada. The number of EIA-processes vary from one country to another. In Finland and Norway together there are no more than 50 cases per year while the other nations may deal with hundreds - thousands of cases per year.  In all the countries both governmental ministeries as well as municipalities are involved as authorities.